The history of the Gateway Arch, St Louis, also known as the St Louis Arch, designed by Eero Saarinen and completed in 1965

The completed St Louis Arch standing in the unfinished Arch Grounds in the 1960’s Picture taken from the air on December 10th 1967 by Reynold Ferguson

The completed St Louis Arch standing in the unfinished Arch Grounds in the 1960’s

Picture taken from the air on December 10th 1967 by Reynold Ferguson

Eero Saarinen and the design of the Arch

The Gateway Arch, located at Memorial Drive, St Louis, Missouri was designed by the Finnish/American architect and industrial designer Eero Saarinen (born August 20th, 1910 in Kirkkonummi, Finland, died September 1st 1961, Ann Arbor, Michigan) and the American/German structural Engineer, Hannskarl Bandel (born May 3rd 1925 Dessau, Germany, died December 29th, 1993 Aspen, Colorado) the arch is also known as the St Louis Arch.

The Gateway Arch, St Louis, Missouri, USA

The Gateway Arch, St Louis, Missouri, USA

The Gateway arch is built in the form of a flattened catenary arch. A catenary arch simply being the shape formed by a chain or cable suspended between two fixed points. The diagram below actually show a catenary curve.

Diagram to show Catenary Arch by Larry Phillips of mathThoughts

Diagram to show Catenary Arch by Larry Phillips of mathThoughts

The cost and construction for the project

The project had been discussed on and off since the 1930’s, mainly as a way of starting new jobs during the economic disaster that was the great depression. 5000 new jobs was the predicted number in all the forecasts, in reality the project only created 100 new jobs in total.

The Gateway Arch, St Louis, under construction in 1965 showing triangular cross section

The Gateway Arch, St Louis, under construction in 1965 showing triangular cross section

Photo St Louis History Museum

Construction finally started in 1963 on February 12th and finished on October 28th 1965. The total cost in 1965 of the Gateway Arch was 13 million USD, which is around 93-94 million USD today. The Arch cost 11 million USD with 2 Million bidding allowed for the transport system inside the arch. MacDonald Construction Co. of St Louis was awarded the contract for construction as the lowest bidder.

There are, today, three ways of scaling the interior of the Arch, there are two sets of emergency stairs, one in each leg and consisting of 1076 steps per staircase. There is an elevator that can accommodate twelve passengers and there is also a tram in each leg of the arch.

 

Interior of the arch showing the Observation platform stop off the Gateway arch north tram. St. Louis, MO, USA

Interior of the arch showing the Observation platform stop off the Gateway arch north tram. St. Louis, MO, USA

The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association, JNEMA

The non-profit making organisation Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association JNEMA—pronounced "Jenny May” - was set up in 1933 with the following remit:-

"A suitable and permanent public memorial to the men who made possible the western territorial expansion of the United States, particularly President Jefferson, his aides Livingston and Monroe, the great explorers, Lewis and Clark, and the hardy hunters, trappers, frontiersmen and pioneers who contributed to the territorial expansion and development of these United States, and thereby to bring before the public of this and future generations the history of our development and induce familiarity with the patriotic accomplishments of these great builders of our country."

Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, the Gateway Arch is the centrepiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and has become the internationally famous iconic symbol of St. Louis.

Materials

The Gateway Arch is huge, just massive. It stands at 192 meters high, which makes it both the tallest arch ever built and the tallest monument built by the United States of America. The arch’s width is the same 192 meters as its span. The Gateway Arch is the largest stainless steel building in the world.

The Gateway Arch is fabricated from 6.3mm thick grade 304 stainless steel, which shows just how durable 304 can be. People often only specify 316 for outdoor projects thinking 304 unsuitable. The stainless steel is finished in No. 3 Finish – this finish is obtained with a ground unidirectional 80 to 100–grit abrasive. It is sometimes an intermediate step for finer finishes.

The stainless steel covering the arch weighs 804 tons, which is also the largest amount of stainless steel used in a single project.

Photograph from below the St Louis Arch.

Photograph from below the St Louis Arch.

Thoughts of the experts

Peter Kaster — History Professor, Washington University in St. Louis
“The Gate Way arch was pretty well received at the time of construction. People actually had the ‘Go West, young man’ mentality and the Arch encouraged this movement”

William Gass — Author, Philosopher
“A lot of the people who did this had never had much of a chance before.”

Robert Duffy — Architecture Critic, St. Louis Post Dispatch
“You see in their faces a sense of hard work but also a certain sense of victory. They have accomplished something, they have moved on, they've gone someplace that no one has ever been before.”

Here we look at every kind of architecture, often including steel and other metals of course, current and historical usually by famous and influential architects but sometimes by names that are surprisingly lesser known.

The Castelar Building, Madrid, Spain – a glass lantern floating above the Paseo de la Castellana - Double Stone Steel

The Castelar Building, Madrid, Spain – a glass lantern floating above the Paseo de la Castellana

The conviction of Rafael de La-Hoz Arderius and Gerardo Olivares to build a minimalist sculpture of steel, glass and travertine on an urban scale.

The story of how the Petersen Automotive Museum leapt into the 21st century with a futuristic steel exoskeleton design strongly influenced by car culture - Double Stone Steel

The story of how the Petersen Automotive Museum leapt into the 21st century with a futuristic steel exoskeleton design strongly influenced by car culture

Robin Fisher explores this building, located at the gateway of Los Angeles' famous Museum Row, extensively renovated through the work of Kohn Pedersen Fox and A.Zahner.

The US Steel Tower, a lasting beacon on the Pittsburgh skyline and legacy of Andrew Carnegie - Double Stone Steel

The US Steel Tower, a lasting beacon on the Pittsburgh skyline and legacy of Andrew Carnegie

Richard Storer-Adam reviews the design and construction of this 64-story skyscraper, built in the 1970’s with Cor-Ten steel, symbolising the triumph of the US Steel industry.

The design story of the Seagram Building, 375 Park Avenue, New York City, built in 1957 - Double Stone Steel

The design story of the Seagram Building, 375 Park Avenue, New York City, built in 1957

Richard Storer-Adam reviews the background and architecture of this iconic modernist glass and bronze tower by German-American architect Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe and American associate architect Philip Cortelyou Johnson.

An examination of the design theory behind Seattle Central Library by OMA - Double Stone Steel

An examination of the design theory behind Seattle Central Library by OMA

Antonio Moll reviews the first work by the Dutch Office in the USA, 16 years after its opening, considering what is probably the most disrupting piece of architecture of the 21st Century.

The Flatiron Building (originally the Fuller Building), designed by Daniel H. Burnham and built in 1902 - Double Stone Steel

The Flatiron Building (originally the Fuller Building), designed by Daniel H. Burnham and built in 1902

Richard Storer-Adam dwells on the genesis of NYC’s most iconic skyscraper and ‘quintessential symbol’ of Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA named after the Flatiron district.

How our use of metals and finishing processes features in design today and since prehistoric times.

The Mini - an iconic car with a design that is recognised around the world. - Double Stone Steel

The Mini - an iconic car with a design that is recognised around the world.

Considered the second most influential car of the 20th Century just after the Ford Model T the Mini is a British Pop-culture icon.

The story of Kem Weber (1889 – 1963), one of the proponents of Art Deco design and architecture in 1930s America - Double Stone Steel

The story of Kem Weber (1889 – 1963), one of the proponents of Art Deco design and architecture in 1930s America

Richard Storer-Adam recounts the work of this influential industrial designer, famous for his work with Walt Disney Studios, through two of his favourite products created in the style of Streamline Moderne.

How the simple industrial process of tube drawing allows for the production of precision quality pipe and tube - Double Stone Steel

How the simple industrial process of tube drawing allows for the production of precision quality pipe and tube

Richard Storer-Adam gives a brief history of two essential modern-day products - hypodermic needles and steel pipes - and the manufacturing technique that connects them.

A brief tutorial on the most luxurious stainless steel watches in the world - Double Stone Steel

A brief tutorial on the most luxurious stainless steel watches in the world

Richard Storer-Adam gives a brief tutorial on Rose and Rose Gold watches, watch straps, lugs and integrated wrist bands including the Rolex Glidelock system in 904L stainless steel.

A virtual tour of Oscar Niemeyer’s Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Niterói, Brazil - Double Stone Steel

A virtual tour of Oscar Niemeyer’s Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Niterói, Brazil

An appreciative and honest critique of this dramatic architectural work - Lola Adeokun shares her experiences and feelings whilst visiting Niemeyer’s museum of art in Rio de Janeiro.

A study of the major design influencer Jean Prouvé - Double Stone Steel

A study of the major design influencer Jean Prouvé

Richard Storer-Adam gives an overview of the life of an iconic mid-century designer whose background as a blacksmith and empathy with metal fabrication played out in his work ranging from furniture, such as the famous Standard SP chair, to pre-fabricated buildings.